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板定向瓦斯抽采钻孔合理层位确定及其抽采效果分析

薛伟超1, 2

(1.露天煤矿卫生能力我国要点测试室,湖南省抚顺市,113122;2.全球煤业投资社会煤业投资建筑项目学校,深圳省南京市,221116)

摘 要 深部(bu)厚煤(mei)层(ceng)(ceng)工作面(mian)快速回(hui)采常诱(you)发瓦(wa)斯(si)异(yi)常涌(yong)出。根(gen)据唐口煤(mei)矿6305工作面(mian)工程条件,采用经(jing)验公式(shi)计算了6305工作面(mian)顶板(ban)(ban)(ban)导(dao)气(qi)裂(lie)缝带的高度区(qu)间,通过Fluent模拟分析了定向(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)长(zhang)(zhang)钻(zuan)(zuan)(zuan)孔(kong)的最(zui)佳设计层(ceng)(ceng)位,施工了3组4个(ge)定向(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)长(zhang)(zhang)钻(zuan)(zuan)(zuan)孔(kong),观测(ce)定向(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)钻(zuan)(zuan)(zuan)孔(kong)抽(chou)(chou)采瓦(wa)斯(si)情况,并(bing)与(yu)传统的高位钻(zuan)(zuan)(zuan)孔(kong)进行技(ji)术经(jing)济(ji)比较。结(jie)果(guo)表明:6305工作面(mian)顶板(ban)(ban)(ban)裂(lie)缝带的区(qu)间高度距离煤(mei)层(ceng)(ceng)底板(ban)(ban)(ban)17.4~45.5 m,定向(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)长(zhang)(zhang)钻(zuan)(zuan)(zuan)孔(kong)的最(zui)佳布置层(ceng)(ceng)位为(wei)距离煤(mei)层(ceng)(ceng)底板(ban)(ban)(ban)4倍采高(40.32 m)处;顶板(ban)(ban)(ban)定向(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)长(zhang)(zhang)钻(zuan)(zuan)(zuan)孔(kong)瓦(wa)斯(si)抽(chou)(chou)采量(liang)(liang)为(wei)39~44 m3/min,瓦(wa)斯(si)抽(chou)(chou)采浓度可(ke)达(da)15%,瓦(wa)斯(si)抽(chou)(chou)采纯量(liang)(liang)为(wei)3~5 m3/min;与(yu)高位钻(zuan)(zuan)(zuan)场钻(zuan)(zuan)(zuan)孔(kong)抽(chou)(chou)采相比,采用顶板(ban)(ban)(ban)定向(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)钻(zuan)(zuan)(zuan)孔(kong)抽(chou)(chou)采裂(lie)缝带瓦(wa)斯(si)能够在(zai)保证不降低瓦(wa)斯(si)治理效果(guo)的前提下,总钻(zuan)(zuan)(zuan)孔(kong)工程量(liang)(liang)减少50%,施工时间缩短72%,每500 m回(hui)采巷道节约成本100万元。

首(shou)要词 顶(ding)板定向钻(zuan)孔;合理层(ceng)位;瓦(wa)斯异常(chang)涌(yong)出(chu);高位钻(zuan)孔;裂缝带(dai);快(kuai)速回(hui)采

深部(bu)厚煤(mei)层(ceng)(ceng)开采(cai)(cai)存(cun)在“三(san)高(gao)一(yi)扰动”特征[1],煤(mei)层(ceng)(ceng)瓦(wa)(wa)斯(si)(si)含(han)量显著增(zeng)大,冲击地压和瓦(wa)(wa)斯(si)(si)复合(he)灾害工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)作(zuo)(zuo)面(mian)快速回采(cai)(cai)常诱发(fa)瓦(wa)(wa)斯(si)(si)异(yi)常涌出[2-3]。顶(ding)板钻(zuan)(zuan)(zuan)(zuan)孔是(shi)治理(li)(li)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)作(zuo)(zuo)面(mian)瓦(wa)(wa)斯(si)(si)异(yi)常涌出的(de)(de)(de)(de)有效措施(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi),钻(zuan)(zuan)(zuan)(zuan)孔设(she)计需(xu)要(yao)合(he)理(li)(li)确定顶(ding)板钻(zuan)(zuan)(zuan)(zuan)孔的(de)(de)(de)(de)施(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)层(ceng)(ceng)位(wei)(wei),其关键是(shi)确定工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)作(zuo)(zuo)面(mian)顶(ding)板导(dao)气(qi)裂缝(feng)带的(de)(de)(de)(de)高(gao)度区间(jian)。只有将顶(ding)板钻(zuan)(zuan)(zuan)(zuan)孔水平部(bu)分布设(she)在工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)作(zuo)(zuo)面(mian)上(shang)覆岩层(ceng)(ceng)的(de)(de)(de)(de)导(dao)气(qi)裂缝(feng)带内(nei),才能(neng)起(qi)到较(jiao)好的(de)(de)(de)(de)瓦(wa)(wa)斯(si)(si)抽(chou)采(cai)(cai)效果。常见的(de)(de)(de)(de)顶(ding)板导(dao)气(qi)裂缝(feng)带的(de)(de)(de)(de)确定方法(fa)(fa)有工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)程(cheng)类比法(fa)(fa)、经验(yan)公(gong)式(shi)法(fa)(fa)[4]、数值模拟法(fa)(fa)[5]、物理(li)(li)相似模拟法(fa)(fa)等。传统的(de)(de)(de)(de)顶(ding)板瓦(wa)(wa)斯(si)(si)抽(chou)采(cai)(cai)是(shi)在工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)作(zuo)(zuo)面(mian)回采(cai)(cai)巷(xiang)道每隔(ge)一(yi)定距离施(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)一(yi)个高(gao)位(wei)(wei)钻(zuan)(zuan)(zuan)(zuan)场,在钻(zuan)(zuan)(zuan)(zuan)场内(nei)向(xiang)(xiang)顶(ding)板施(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)数组(zu)高(gao)位(wei)(wei)钻(zuan)(zuan)(zuan)(zuan)孔抽(chou)采(cai)(cai)顶(ding)板裂缝(feng)带瓦(wa)(wa)斯(si)(si);10余年来,随着钻(zuan)(zuan)(zuan)(zuan)进技术(shu)的(de)(de)(de)(de)提升[6-8],定向(xiang)(xiang)钻(zuan)(zuan)(zuan)(zuan)孔抽(chou)采(cai)(cai)瓦(wa)(wa)斯(si)(si)在井下巷(xiang)道掘(jue)进[9]和工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)作(zuo)(zuo)面(mian)回采(cai)(cai)[10-12]中(zhong)大量应用。定向(xiang)(xiang)钻(zuan)(zuan)(zuan)(zuan)孔抽(chou)采(cai)(cai)瓦(wa)(wa)斯(si)(si)具有施(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)钻(zuan)(zuan)(zuan)(zuan)场少、施(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)过(guo)程(cheng)中(zhong)对生(sheng)产干(gan)扰少、瓦(wa)(wa)斯(si)(si)抽(chou)采(cai)(cai)浓度和抽(chou)采(cai)(cai)量波动变化小等优点,但是(shi)对钻(zuan)(zuan)(zuan)(zuan)孔施(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)层(ceng)(ceng)位(wei)(wei)准(zhun)确度要(yao)求较(jiao)高(gao)。

唐口立井用作采深高达1 000 m的高高煤层气立井,渐渐采深的正渐渐减少,打击地压显示屏活动内容改善,煤层高煤层气含锌量减少,多加上聚合化操作面高韧性度高效回采,高煤层气出来异常涌上来的情况频现,诱发矿下局布地段有或者出来高煤层气超过,厉害会影响操作面安全可靠生產,因为必定制定有必要的的的措施减少操作面高煤层气氧化还原电位。在阐述6305操作面回采后顶板裂开带健康发育区间的基础上上,分享了顶板定向招生切槽在唐口立井的合理性层位非常高煤层气抽采郊果,并与传统文化的箱顶钻场切槽抽采工艺完成相对阐述,为同样的操作面高煤层气源头治理展示 参考使用。

1 工程概况

唐口煤矿业地处广东省省菏泽市市,630采区主采3号煤层,埋深935.4~990.0 m,煤层倾斜约3°,煤层差不多尺寸为10.08 m;煤层空间结构方便,受断陷及褶曲等连接结构关系较小。6305做作业面走上长1 166 m,更倾向长65 m。6305做作业面煤层顶板岩性及尺寸如图甲右图1右图。
图1 6305工做面煤层及顶板综上质地柱形图

回采前测(ce)定(ding)3号(hao)煤(mei)层瓦(wa)斯含量(liang)在(zai)0.73~2.58 m3/t之间,预测(ce)6305工作面(mian)相对瓦(wa)斯涌出(chu)量(liang)为0.40 m3/t,绝(jue)对涌出(chu)量(liang)为4.6 m3/min,局部瓦(wa)斯涌出(chu)量(liang)变化较大。煤(mei)自然发(fa)火期为69~156 d,煤(mei)尘具有(you)爆炸危险性。

6305事情面选择U型排风系统,逐渐长壁综采放顶煤采煤法完成回采,全部的垮落法管理系统顶板。6305事情面是典型的的聚合化事情面,大概助推刚度能达到10 m/d范围甚至是更多,都是般综放事情面回采刚度(4~6 m/d)的2倍范围;割煤长度为4.50 m、放煤长度为5.58 m,大规模开采刚度大大。

2 定向钻孔合理布置层位确定

在市政工程前提解析的基层医院上,使用相关经验公试计算公式和平均值仿真模拟解析的办法求根6305做工作面顶板裂隙带长度及面积。

2.1 经验公式计算

采煤本职运行体上覆顶板岩层导气开裂带极高区域都可以通过本职运行面回采后采空区的冒落带、开裂带的极高测算,准确由《建筑结构物、地表水、高速公路及注意井巷煤柱留设与压煤挖出规章程序》中公教育式测算来计算出来。6305本职运行体上覆岩层常见为泥岩、中砂岩、细砂岩,属中硬种类顶板,上覆岩层开裂带测算如式(1)、式(2):

式中:Hm——采(cai)空区(qu)冒(mao)落带高度,m;

Hl——采(cai)空(kong)区裂(lie)缝带高(gao)度,m;

ΣM——煤(mei)层(ceng)开采高度,m。

6305运作中面煤层的高10.08 m,选用割煤特别和放煤特别累计相当于煤层的高,即都煤厚采放尽全。不同顶板各岩层的岩性,进入计算方式并结合实际心得概述,取6305运作中面的冒落带特别为17.4 m、裂开带特别为45.5 m,即顶板导气裂开带的特别时间间隔为煤层底板超过17.4~45.5 m。

2.2 数值模拟分析

6305做上班面回采巷道横截面为接近5 m×4 m的圆形,采煤做上班面开切眼横截面为5 m×4 m。搭配做上班面厚度后加上10~20 m的相距以减小或增大边缘滞后效应,取130 m长的做上班面了解;融合要考虑到网格质量水平及计算出效率,使用Design Model最终能够树立厚度为130 m×75 m×65 m(流向×人格缺陷×高)的目标值建模 。使用Mesh模组对建模 实行网格分割,如图随时2随时。
图2 6305事情面高瓦斯抽采模型工具网格化分
为简化法参考值整治,表明车间具体问题问题对估算整治给予相应假如: (1)3号煤层倾斜度3°,抽象化为情况煤层; (2)疏忽巷道坡面尺寸方往右的变幻及巷道变形几率,将本职工作面回采巷道与开切眼简化版为规范标准椭圆; (3)被忽视固定架与采煤机等巷道内机电专业机器对风流的影向; (4)依赖工作的面生长期来压与冲击力能量迹象对采空区煤气运移的作用; (5)被忽视巷道煤壁高煤气清新喷出对高煤气抽采的作用。

按照以上(shang)假设(she),工(gong)作(zuo)面(mian)风量取平(ping)均值(zhi)1 760 m3/min,瓦(wa)斯抽采压力为-13 kPa[13],将模型生成网格导入(ru)Fluent。 数(shu)值(zhi)模拟方案(an)参数(shu)见表1。根据上(shang)文计算(suan),顶板导气裂缝带(dai)的高度(du)区(qu)间(jian)为煤层底板以上(shang)17.4~45.5 m,按照传统采高M倍数(shu)的度(du)量方式,依表1所示(shi)方案(an)模拟6305工(gong)作(zuo)面(mian)单一(yi)钻孔瓦(wa)斯抽采,分析瓦(wa)斯抽采情况。

表1 平均值养成计划书指标 细则名稱采高M/m采高质数和合数γ冲孔终孔特别H/m细则110.082.020.16细则210.082.525.20细则310.083.030.24细则410.083.535.28细则510.084.040.32细则610.084.545.36
经过加权总值总值测算抽采打孔孔壁周面的可燃气体重量访问量考分,获得单孔可燃气体抽采含量随打孔终孔层面变动的规律性,如图甲一样3一样。

从图3可(ke)以(yi)看出,当钻(zuan)(zuan)孔(kong)(kong)终(zhong)孔(kong)(kong)高(gao)(gao)度处在(zai)较(jiao)低的(de)(de)2M、2.5M高(gao)(gao)度时,钻(zuan)(zuan)孔(kong)(kong)终(zhong)孔(kong)(kong)处于(yu)顶(ding)(ding)板冒落带上(shang)(shang)方(fang),裂(lie)(lie)隙空(kong)间发育,孔(kong)(kong)隙率也较(jiao)大,但是由(you)于(yu)瓦(wa)(wa)斯在(zai)自由(you)空(kong)间内(nei)向上(shang)(shang)部(bu)(bu)(bu)空(kong)间运移集聚(ju),且(qie)钻(zuan)(zuan)孔(kong)(kong)大部(bu)(bu)(bu)分处在(zai)冒落带范(fan)围内(nei),因而(er)(er)瓦(wa)(wa)斯抽(chou)采(cai)浓(nong)(nong)度相对较(jiao)低,仅(jin)处于(yu)10%~11%的(de)(de)水平。当钻(zuan)(zuan)孔(kong)(kong)终(zhong)孔(kong)(kong)位置由(you)3M逐(zhu)渐(jian)升高(gao)(gao)到4M时,钻(zuan)(zuan)孔(kong)(kong)终(zhong)孔(kong)(kong)进入到顶(ding)(ding)板裂(lie)(lie)缝(feng)(feng)带范(fan)围的(de)(de)上(shang)(shang)部(bu)(bu)(bu)区域,瓦(wa)(wa)斯集聚(ju)浓(nong)(nong)度高(gao)(gao);钻(zuan)(zuan)孔(kong)(kong)下部(bu)(bu)(bu)受采(cai)动影响(xiang)相对较(jiao)小(xiao),漏风量(liang)逐(zhu)渐(jian)减小(xiao),因而(er)(er)抽(chou)采(cai)瓦(wa)(wa)斯浓(nong)(nong)度由(you)20%快速增(zeng)加到40%左右。当钻(zuan)(zuan)孔(kong)(kong)终(zhong)孔(kong)(kong)高(gao)(gao)度为4.5M时,终(zhong)孔(kong)(kong)高(gao)(gao)度处于(yu)裂(lie)(lie)缝(feng)(feng)带上(shang)(shang)部(bu)(bu)(bu)边界(jie)附近,裂(lie)(lie)隙空(kong)间逐(zhu)渐(jian)被(bei)压实,钻(zuan)(zuan)孔(kong)(kong)在(zai)裂(lie)(lie)缝(feng)(feng)带内(nei)的(de)(de)有(you)效长度占比较(jiao)小(xiao),实际抽(chou)采(cai)的(de)(de)瓦(wa)(wa)斯量(liang)和(he)瓦(wa)(wa)斯浓(nong)(nong)度逐(zhu)渐(jian)降低。

图3 不同的髙度的最高位切槽抽采煤气酸度发展

综上,单一钻(zuan)孔抽(chou)采条件下,随(sui)着钻(zuan)孔终孔高(gao)度(du)的(de)逐渐增加,钻(zuan)孔抽(chou)采裂缝(feng)带内瓦斯(si)浓度(du)呈(cheng)现出先(xian)升(sheng)高(gao)后(hou)降低(di)的(de)趋势,并在距(ju)煤(mei)(mei)层底(di)板4M高(gao)度(du)(40.32 m)处(chu)达到(dao)峰值。因此,6305工作面顶板钻(zuan)孔的(de)合理布(bu)设层位(wei)为距(ju)煤(mei)(mei)层底(di)板4M高(gao)度(du)附近,这也与前文的(de)经验公式计算结果相符。

3 定向钻孔布置方案

工(gong)作面顶(ding)板“O-X”破断垮落形成“O型圈(quan)”导气裂(lie)(lie)缝带[14-15],煤层倾向不同(tong)位(wei)置(zhi)的(de)(de)裂(lie)(lie)缝带高度范(fan)围有所(suo)差异,因此实(shi)(shi)际施(shi)工(gong)时应根据(ju)现场情(qing)况对沿(yan)倾向方(fang)向不同(tong)位(wei)置(zhi)处高位(wei)钻(zuan)孔(kong)的(de)(de)终孔(kong)点高度进(jin)行相应调整。采用(yong)ZYWL-6000DA型煤矿用(yong)履带式(shi)全(quan)液压钻(zuan)机在6305胶带运输(shu)巷与6305联(lian)络(luo)巷交叉口钻(zuan)场内(nei)向胶带运输(shu)巷内(nei)侧(ce)顶(ding)板裂(lie)(lie)缝带内(nei)施(shi)工(gong)3组钻(zuan)孔(kong),包括(kuo)3个主(zhu)孔(kong)和1个分支孔(kong),施(shi)工(gong)参数见表2,具(ju)体定(ding)(ding)向钻(zuan)孔(kong)施(shi)工(gong)布置(zhi)如(ru)图4所(suo)示。定(ding)(ding)向钻(zuan)孔(kong)按照2号(hao)(hao)、3号(hao)(hao)、1号(hao)(hao)孔(kong)的(de)(de)顺序逐次施(shi)工(gong)。实(shi)(shi)际钻(zuan)孔(kong)施(shi)工(gong)的(de)(de)平均机械钻(zuan)速由2号(hao)(hao)孔(kong)的(de)(de)25 m/班(ban)(ban),逐渐提高到(dao)1-1号(hao)(hao)孔(kong)的(de)(de)61 m/班(ban)(ban),单(dan)班(ban)(ban)最大进(jin)尺75 m/班(ban)(ban),单(dan)日最大进(jin)尺216 m。

表2 顶板定向生转孔完工产品参数表 冲孔编号规则打孔位子角N/°打孔宽度h/m打孔偏角α/°合金钻头长度/mm孔深d/m终孔宽度H/m巷帮平距B/m2号217.7216.69837540112号/2/983573572号211.7212.2983753053号224.3215.0984024512
图4 顶板定项打孔装修施工搭建

4 定向钻孔瓦斯抽采效果

成孔施工过程顺利完成后,立刻接成孔抽采蒸汽管道,另外在各支系成孔留出足够的煤层气的流量数据测试口和采样口,2号、1-2号支系成孔合拼考量,对煤层气抽采的流量数据和煤层气抽采盐浓度展开数据监测,如5。
图5 顶板定向培养钻孔设备煤气抽采原因

(1)1号(hao)钻(zuan)(zuan)(zuan)(zuan)(zuan)孔(kong)(kong)(kong)的(de)单孔(kong)(kong)(kong)抽(chou)(chou)(chou)(chou)(chou)采(cai)(cai)(cai)量(liang)(liang)在(zai)15~18 m3/min,2号(hao)钻(zuan)(zuan)(zuan)(zuan)(zuan)孔(kong)(kong)(kong)单孔(kong)(kong)(kong)抽(chou)(chou)(chou)(chou)(chou)采(cai)(cai)(cai)量(liang)(liang)在(zai)16~18 m3/min,3号(hao)钻(zuan)(zuan)(zuan)(zuan)(zuan)孔(kong)(kong)(kong)单孔(kong)(kong)(kong)抽(chou)(chou)(chou)(chou)(chou)采(cai)(cai)(cai)量(liang)(liang)为5~9 m3/min。3组钻(zuan)(zuan)(zuan)(zuan)(zuan)孔(kong)(kong)(kong)总(zong)瓦(wa)斯抽(chou)(chou)(chou)(chou)(chou)采(cai)(cai)(cai)量(liang)(liang)为39~44 m3/min。高(gao)位(wei)钻(zuan)(zuan)(zuan)(zuan)(zuan)孔(kong)(kong)(kong)单孔(kong)(kong)(kong)平均(jun)瓦(wa)斯抽(chou)(chou)(chou)(chou)(chou)采(cai)(cai)(cai)量(liang)(liang)为6 m3/min,总(zong)瓦(wa)斯抽(chou)(chou)(chou)(chou)(chou)采(cai)(cai)(cai)量(liang)(liang)为34~36 m3/min。相(xiang)比传统高(gao)位(wei)钻(zuan)(zuan)(zuan)(zuan)(zuan)孔(kong)(kong)(kong),由于(yu)瓦(wa)斯抽(chou)(chou)(chou)(chou)(chou)采(cai)(cai)(cai)距离(li)缩短,钻(zuan)(zuan)(zuan)(zuan)(zuan)孔(kong)(kong)(kong)直(zhi)径变大(da),形(xing)成更大(da)的(de)抽(chou)(chou)(chou)(chou)(chou)采(cai)(cai)(cai)比表面积,且抽(chou)(chou)(chou)(chou)(chou)采(cai)(cai)(cai)过程(cheng)中(zhong)(zhong)不存在(zai)抽(chou)(chou)(chou)(chou)(chou)采(cai)(cai)(cai)位(wei)置(zhi)的(de)高(gao)低变化,瓦(wa)斯总(zong)抽(chou)(chou)(chou)(chou)(chou)采(cai)(cai)(cai)量(liang)(liang)增(zeng)加了5~8 m3/min,增(zeng)幅(fu)为14.7%~22.2%。在(zai)这3组钻(zuan)(zuan)(zuan)(zuan)(zuan)孔(kong)(kong)(kong)中(zhong)(zhong),3号(hao)钻(zuan)(zuan)(zuan)(zuan)(zuan)孔(kong)(kong)(kong)抽(chou)(chou)(chou)(chou)(chou)采(cai)(cai)(cai)量(liang)(liang)最(zui)小(xiao),主要是由于(yu)3号(hao)钻(zuan)(zuan)(zuan)(zuan)(zuan)孔(kong)(kong)(kong)布置(zhi)在(zai)中(zhong)(zhong)砂岩(yan)中(zhong)(zhong),且钻(zuan)(zuan)(zuan)(zuan)(zuan)孔(kong)(kong)(kong)偏离(li)胶(jiao)带运(yun)输巷进(jin)(jin)入工(gong)(gong)作(zuo)面12 m左右(you),工(gong)(gong)作(zuo)面回采(cai)(cai)(cai)后垮落呈漏(lou)斗形(xing),在(zai)顶板来(lai)压(ya)和(he)地(di)应力的(de)作(zuo)用(yong)下(xia)钻(zuan)(zuan)(zuan)(zuan)(zuan)孔(kong)(kong)(kong)受压(ya)变形(xing),造成钻(zuan)(zuan)(zuan)(zuan)(zuan)孔(kong)(kong)(kong)塌孔(kong)(kong)(kong),钻(zuan)(zuan)(zuan)(zuan)(zuan)孔(kong)(kong)(kong)内空间变小(xiao),同等负压(ya)条件下(xia)瓦(wa)斯抽(chou)(chou)(chou)(chou)(chou)采(cai)(cai)(cai)相(xiang)对较小(xiao);1号(hao)钻(zuan)(zuan)(zuan)(zuan)(zuan)孔(kong)(kong)(kong)、2号(hao)钻(zuan)(zuan)(zuan)(zuan)(zuan)孔(kong)(kong)(kong)水平孔(kong)(kong)(kong)段主要分布在(zai)细砂岩(yan)和(he)粉(fen)(fen)砂岩(yan)中(zhong)(zhong),岩(yan)层硬度大(da),不易塌孔(kong)(kong)(kong);1号(hao)钻(zuan)(zuan)(zuan)(zuan)(zuan)孔(kong)(kong)(kong)合并计(ji)算(suan)1-1号(hao)分支孔(kong)(kong)(kong),因(yin)此抽(chou)(chou)(chou)(chou)(chou)采(cai)(cai)(cai)量(liang)(liang)相(xiang)对较大(da)。对比可知,将顶板定向钻(zuan)(zuan)(zuan)(zuan)(zuan)孔(kong)(kong)(kong)布置(zhi)在(zai)6305工(gong)(gong)作(zuo)面顶板的(de)细砂岩(yan)和(he)粉(fen)(fen)砂岩(yan)中(zhong)(zhong),同时减小(xiao)钻(zuan)(zuan)(zuan)(zuan)(zuan)孔(kong)(kong)(kong)进(jin)(jin)入工(gong)(gong)作(zuo)面的(de)距离(li),可以进(jin)(jin)一步增(zeng)大(da)单孔(kong)(kong)(kong)瓦(wa)斯抽(chou)(chou)(chou)(chou)(chou)采(cai)(cai)(cai)量(liang)(liang)。

(2)5号转孔抽采氨水密度值在7%~13%相互中,2号转孔抽采氨水密度值在5%~7%相互中,3号转孔抽采氨水密度值在9%~15%相互中。之中,3号转孔抽采氨水密度值最快,也离工做面输送巷更远,5号转孔次之,2号转孔仍然作业步骤中之前碰上半根锚索,有可能发生漏气,引起可燃气体抽采氨水密度值最低。传统文化钻场高位置转孔的一般可燃气体抽采氨水密度值为5%~10%。相较于在于,顶板定向招生转孔的整体结构可燃气体抽采氨水密度值改善了2%~5%。

(3)1号(hao)(hao)钻(zuan)(zuan)(zuan)孔(kong)单孔(kong)抽采(cai)(cai)(cai)纯(chun)(chun)量为1.2~2.0 m3/min,2号(hao)(hao)钻(zuan)(zuan)(zuan)孔(kong)单孔(kong)抽采(cai)(cai)(cai)纯(chun)(chun)量为0.8~2.0 m3/min,3号(hao)(hao)钻(zuan)(zuan)(zuan)孔(kong)单孔(kong)抽采(cai)(cai)(cai)纯(chun)(chun)量为0.7~1.2 m3/min。其中,3号(hao)(hao)钻(zuan)(zuan)(zuan)孔(kong)布设(she)层(ceng)(ceng)位(wei)最高(gao)(gao),由于高(gao)(gao)位(wei)裂缝空间的(de)重新压实及顶板岩层(ceng)(ceng)变形破坏(huai)导致钻(zuan)(zuan)(zuan)孔(kong)局部(bu)坍塌,其瓦(wa)(wa)斯抽采(cai)(cai)(cai)纯(chun)(chun)量较(jiao)低;2号(hao)(hao)钻(zuan)(zuan)(zuan)孔(kong)在施工过程中碰(peng)到一(yi)根锚索(suo),可能存(cun)在漏气,导致瓦(wa)(wa)斯抽采(cai)(cai)(cai)量较(jiao)大(da)而(er)瓦(wa)(wa)斯抽采(cai)(cai)(cai)浓度(du)和纯(chun)(chun)量相较(jiao)1号(hao)(hao)钻(zuan)(zuan)(zuan)孔(kong)小(xiao);1号(hao)(hao)钻(zuan)(zuan)(zuan)孔(kong)由于所在岩层(ceng)(ceng)较(jiao)硬(ying),钻(zuan)(zuan)(zuan)孔(kong)成孔(kong)状态好,瓦(wa)(wa)斯抽采(cai)(cai)(cai)浓度(du)高(gao)(gao),抽采(cai)(cai)(cai)纯(chun)(chun)量大(da)。3组钻(zuan)(zuan)(zuan)孔(kong)总瓦(wa)(wa)斯抽采(cai)(cai)(cai)纯(chun)(chun)量为3~5 m3/min,多(duo)稳定(ding)在3~4 m3/min;相比传统(tong)高(gao)(gao)位(wei)钻(zuan)(zuan)(zuan)孔(kong)1.6~2.5 m3/min的(de)总瓦(wa)(wa)斯抽采(cai)(cai)(cai)纯(chun)(chun)量,增加了1.4~1.5 m3/min,增幅(fu)高(gao)(gao)达60.0%~87.5%。

从可燃气体管治感觉上看:比照分折可燃气体抽采感觉和方向生切槽流程的职位有关,随着时间推移切槽层位的延长,间隔巷帮能力间隔的扩大,可燃气体抽采氨水酸度和可燃气体抽采纯用户量日益扩大,进1步认证了裂隙带可燃气体的分布区差不多规律与的经验算出和标值模似成果相匹配;传统化大量切槽抽采时的岗位面送风口流可燃气体氨水酸度差不多在0.25%~0.32%互相,隅角可燃气体氨水酸度在0.42%~0.65%互相,顶板方向生切槽抽采后的岗位面送风口流可燃气体氨水酸度稳定性在0.22%~0.25%互相,隅角可燃气体氨水酸度在0.35%~0.55%互相,到了更优质的可燃气体管治的感觉。

5 定向钻孔施工工效分析

5.1 工程量比较

取每500 m岗位面回采巷道看作9个单无工作建设过程高瓦斯抽采冲孔会比较。用到高级钻机工作建设过程箱顶置冲孔,钻场差距50 m,可以开10个钻服务器,4个钻场工作建设过程3个箱顶置冲孔,冲孔大概宽度为100 m,则4个钻场可以工作建设过程冲孔宽度为300 m,500 m巷道工作建设过程冲孔总宽度为3 000 m。用到万千米定向生钻机工作建设过程,可以工作建设过程9个钻场、3组冲孔,4个冲孔500 m,工作建设过程冲孔总宽度为1 500 m,冲孔总工作量才能减少50%。

5.2 施工时间比较

通常钻机(杭钻)道路铺设,的分別每家挖孔要有2.5 d(含拖移钻机耗时间隔),30个挖孔要有75 d;方向钻机道路铺设,在6305岗位面道路铺设的分別转速为70 m/d,3个挖孔要有21 d,道路铺设耗时间隔降低了72%。

5.3 施工费用比较

(1)地位钻场打孔:由外委计量单位建筑,打孔(含空口管及花管学费)52元/m,钻场2万美金/个,打孔建筑总计下来学费1715万美金。移设高煤层气抽采打孔、回撤抽采管道阀门、投资回报高煤层气抽采管道阀门学费自动求和115万美金。每500 m回采巷道自动求和学费192万美金。 (2)顶板定向就业转孔:由钻机理造行业土建工程,转孔600/m,钻高防机房2万块/个,每500 m回采巷道共需资金92万块。 经估算,每500 m巷道才能得节约制造费一千万元。

6 结论

(1)6305上班面的冒落带较高为17.4 m、裂痕带较高为45.5 m,裂痕带区段为17.4~45.5 m,另外距煤层底板40.32 m处是布置房间顶板定项长挖孔的最加层位。

(2)6305厚煤层(ceng)快(kuai)速(su)回采(cai)工作面顶板(ban)定(ding)(ding)(ding)向(xiang)(xiang)钻(zuan)孔(kong)(kong)瓦斯(si)抽(chou)(chou)(chou)采(cai)量(liang)(liang)为39~44 m3/min,比高(gao)位钻(zuan)孔(kong)(kong)增(zeng)加5~8 m3/min,增(zeng)幅(fu)达14.7%~22.2%;顶板(ban)定(ding)(ding)(ding)向(xiang)(xiang)长钻(zuan)孔(kong)(kong)抽(chou)(chou)(chou)采(cai)瓦斯(si)浓度(du)最大可达15%;定(ding)(ding)(ding)向(xiang)(xiang)钻(zuan)孔(kong)(kong)瓦斯(si)抽(chou)(chou)(chou)采(cai)纯(chun)量(liang)(liang)比高(gao)位钻(zuan)孔(kong)(kong)增(zeng)加了1.4~1.5 m3/min,增(zeng)幅(fu)高(gao)达60.0~87.5%。

(3)与过去新高钻场转孔抽采顶板裂痕带高高瓦斯比较,进行定向招生长转孔要在保障不拉低高高瓦斯制理功能的依据下,转孔总工程项目量限制50%,装修施工日期减少72%,每500 m回采巷道要业绩制造费百万元。

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Research on reasonable horizon determination and drainage effect analysis of roof directional gas drainage boreholes

XUE Weichao1, 2

(1.State Key Laboratory of Coal Mine Safety Technology, Shenyang Research Institute of ChinaCoal Technology and Engineering Group, Fushun, Liaoning 113122, China;2. School of Mines, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou, Jiangsu 221116, China)

Abstract Rapid recovery of working face in deep and thick coal seams often induces abnormal gas emission. According to the engineering conditions of 6305 working face in Tangkou Coal Mine, the height interval of the air conduction fracture zone in the roof of 6305 working face was calculated by theoretical formula, the optimal design horizon of directional long borehole was analyzed by Fluent simulation and 4 long directional boreholes in 3 groups were constructed. The gas drainage effect by directional boreholes was observed and compared with the traditional high-level boreholes. The results showed that the interval height of the roof fracture zone of 6305 working face was 14-45 m from the coal seam floor; the distance of optimal layout horizon of the directional long borehole from the coal seam floor was 40.32 m which was equal to 4 times of mining height; the gas drainage volume of the roof directional long borehole was 39-44 m3/min, and the gas concentration reached 15%, and the pure gas volume was 3-5 m3/min; compared with the traditional high-level borehole gas drainage, the roof directional borehole gas drainage could reduce the total borehole engineering amount by 50% and the construction time by 72%, and save 1 million yuan in cost per 500 m mining roadway without reducing the gas control effect.

Key words roof directional drilling; reasonable horizon; abnormal gas emission; high-level borehole; fracture zone; rapid mining

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引述文件(jian)类型:薛伟超.顶板定向瓦斯抽(chou)采钻孔(kong)合(he)理层位确定及其抽(chou)采效果分析[J].中国煤炭(tan),2022,48(4)∶41-47. doi:10.19880/j.cnki.ccm.2022.04.007

XUE Weichao.Research on reasonable horizon determination and drainage effect analysis of roof directional gas drainage boreholes[J].China Coal,2022,48(4)∶41-47. doi:10.19880/j.cnki.ccm.2022.04.007

投资基金(jin)建设项目:河南省瓦斯地质(zhi)与(yu)瓦斯治理重点实验(yan)室开(kai)放基金(jin)(SYYD-20WS-004),中(zhong)煤(mei)科工集团沈(shen)阳研究(jiu)院创新引导项目(SYYD-21WS-002)

创(chuang)作者介简(jian):薛伟超(1988-),男(nan),河(he)南沁阳人(ren),助理(li)研究员,博士研究生(sheng),主要从事矿井深(shen)部动力(li)灾害(hai)防(fang)治(zhi)研究工作。E-mail:xinshijixue@163.com

中图(tu)定义号 TD712

文献综述(shu)圆形(xing)标志码 A

(责任义务整理 张艳华)